The new currents are externalist the social context is everything , constructivist subjectivist , relativist there are no universal truths , and pragmatist actions and interactions are more important than ideas. They hold that scientific research is a social activity like any other, and that scientific researchers are skillful but unscrupulous craftsmen. On top of all this, they adopt psychological and philosophical doctrines hostile to science.
The article offers a severe criticism of these principles as well as of some of its bestknown applications. It concludes that the new sociology of science provides an utterly distorted image of science based on obscurantist philosophies, to the point that it may be regarded as part of the counter-culture movement. Where anything goes nothing goes well. The Good and the Right, Dordrecht: It is also about axiology the study of value systems , ethics the study of moral codes , and action theory. It is concerned with both private and public values, morals, and actions.
In particular, it seeks to uncover the roots and functions biological and social of valuation and morality. As well, it attempts to sketch a value system, a moral code and a general plan of action that may help us tackle the dreadful problems of our time. This revival is particularly welcome at a time when philosophy as a whole is at a low ebb - so much so that some philosophers have proclaimed its death while others have taken leave of reason.
But the current flourishing of ethics may be an indicator of the general crisis of modern civilization, for people do not usually reflect on problems about values and morals until they face them, and nowadays most of us face them daily by the dozen. This is the last volume of my Treatise on Basic Philosophy, on which I started to work two decades ago. It is consistent with the previous volumes, in particular with the naturalistic, dynamicist, emergentist and systemist ontology, as well as with the realistic and ratioempiricist semantics and epistemology formulated therein.
However, the present book may be read independently of its companions.
Roots of values 11; 2. Value theory 61; Part II. Roots of morals 93; 5. Morality changes ; 6. Some moral issues ; Part III. Types of ethical theory ; 8. Ethics et alia ; 9. Furthermore, in some circles it was assumed that philosophy ought not impinge on the world. By contrast, the academic scrutiny of science has for the most part been accepted as legitimate for some 30 years, primarily because it has been conducted in a somewhat ethereal manner.
This is, in part, because it was believed that, science being pure, one could think even philosophically about science without jeopardizing one's intellectual purity. Since World War II, however, practitioners of the metascientific arts have come to ac knowledge that science also shows signs of having touched down on numerous occasions in what can only be identified as the real world. No longer able to keep this banal truth a secret, purists have sought to defuse its import by stressing the difference between pure and applied science; and, lest science be tainted by contact with the world through its applications, they have devoted additional energy to separating applied science somehow from technology.
The point is to cooperate on a world scale over and above the international and international rivalries. The above mentioned crises will be overcome to the extent that the required political will is formed. And for this to happen it is necessary to awaken those who have not realized the seriousness and the urgency of the problem; we must also build up, practice and preach and ecosocial morality.
To conclude, the alternative is not either development or preservation of the environment, but either continuation of the course to ultimate disaster or improvement in the quality of life in and by ecosociodevelopment. Unless we succeed in combining global development with the restoration and preservation of the biosphere, we shall deserve being rechristened, from Homo sapiens sapiens, into Homo stultus stultus. Worse, we shall deserve becoming extint for preferring profit and domination to the common and lasting good.
Peter Lang, , Vol.
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New Springer Verlag, , pp. It deals with such questions as 'What is behavior a manifestation of? They also occur in the critical examination of data and theories, as well as methods for the treatment of behavioral and mental disorders. All students of human or animal, normal or abnormal behavior and mind, whether their main concern is basic or applied, theoretical or empirical, admit more or less tacitly to a large number of general philosophical and methodological principles. However, for better or for worse they have not reached a consensus. It is not for better, because lack of consensus made indicate that the problem is still open.
And for the worse, because dissensus made indicate confusion, which is often result of superficiality. I shall also argue that these concepts and the desiderata they entail, are ordered in a certain manner, and that singling out any of these desiderata, at the expense of the others, leads to partial rationality, an easy prey to irrationalism. Therefore I shall make a plea for global or scientific rationality. Finally, I will suggest that Popper and Chomsky, who pass for being the contemporary, champions of rationalism, profess only a bounded rationalism.
I shall also suggest that paraconsistent logic and decision theory, for all they mathematical apparatus, are pseudorational. All this will be done sketchily: Ariel, , pp. Reidel Publishing Company, , pp. Moral materialism is identical with hedonism, or the doctrine that humans should pursue only their own pleasure. Philosophical materialism is the view that the real world is composed exclusively of material things.
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The two doctrines are logically independent: We shall be concerned exc1usively with philosophical materialism. And we shall not confuse it with realism, or the epistemological doctrine that knowledge, or at any rate scientific knowledge, attempts to represent reality. The first was ancient materialism, centered around Greek and Indian atomism.
The second was the revival of the first during the 17th century. The fifth was dialectical and historical materialism, which accompanied the consolidation of the socialist ideology. And the sixth or current stage, evolved mainly by Australian and American philosophers, is academic and nonpartisan but otherwise very heterogeneous. It intends to show that the idea of a separate mental entity is not only unwarranted by the available data and the existing psychological models, but collides head-on with the most fundamental ideas of all modern science and is thus a stumbling block to progress.
The book abandons ordinary language in favor of the state space language, which is mathematically precise and is shared by science and scientific philosophy. Comprised of 10 chapters, this monograph begins with an overview of the mind-body problem and its main proposed solutions, classified into main genera: In particular, ten views on the mind-body problem are analyzed, along with three main varieties of materialism with regards to the problem: The discussion then turns to the notion of a concrete or material system, based on the assumption that behavior is an external manifestation of neural processes.
Subsequent chapters explore the specific functions of the central nervous system; sensation and perception; behavior and motivation; memory and learning; thinking and knowing; and consciousness and personality.
The book also considers sociality and social behavior in animals before concluding with an assessment of a psychological explanation of the mind, with emphasis on dualism and monism. Not only psychologists and philosophers but also some neurophysiologists dare now write about it.
Even ethologists are discovering that animals other than men can become aware of what they do, and try to explain some of their behavior on the assumption that they have mental abilities. Neurophysiology is necessary but not sufficient, for it tends to discard psychological categories such as those of purpose and thought. And psychology, though 53 equally necessary, is insufficient as well—unless it is physiological—for it tends to forget about the nervous system.
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That is the constructive part of this book. This work has also a polemical side. Indeed, it intends to show that the idea of a separate mental entity is not only unwarranted by the available data and the existing psychological models, but collides head on with the most fundamental ideas of all modern science and is thus a stumbling block to progress. Data gatherers may care little for either aspect of this book, the theoretical or the critical. But data gathering, though a part of scientific research, is not all of it. This holds particularly with regard to problems, such as that of the nature of mind, which are not only scientific but also philosophical and ideological.
This is the system of ancient questions about the nature of the mental and its relations to the bodily. Here are some of the problems belonging to the mind-body problem circle. Are mind and body two separate entities? If so, how are they held together in the living organism? How do they get in touch in the beginning, how do they fly asunder at the end, and what becomes of the mind after the breakdown of the body? How do the two entities manage to function synchronically: Do these entities interact, and if so how? And which if any has the upper hand? If, on the other hand, mind and body are not different entities, is the mind corporeal?
Or is it the other way around, namely is the body a form of the mind? Or is each a manifestation of a single neutral underlying inaccessible substance? A thing, a collection of states of a thing, a set of events in the thing-or nothing at all?
And whatever it is, is it just physical or is it something more? And in the latter case — i. The mind-body problem is notoriously a hard nut to crack — surely even more so than the problem of matter — so much so that some scientists and philosophers despair of it being soluble at all. We submit that the problem, though tough, is soluble, and shall outline a solution to it in this work. But before doing so we shall have to do some philosophical scouting and conceptual cleansing, because part of the problem is that it is usually formulated in inadequate terms — namely in those of ordinary language.
These are inadequate not only because ordinary language is imprecise and poor but also because the European languages are loaded with a preconceived solution to the problem, namely psychophysical dualism, or the doctrine that mind and body are separate entities.
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The mind-body problem; 2. Sensation and perception; 5. Behavior and motivation; 6. Memory and learning; 7.